• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed, optimized, and characterized for Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) Verl. (Bignoniaceae), a Neotropical liana extensively used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to develop molecular tools to investigate the genetic structure and diversity of natural populations and germplasm collections of this species. • Methods and Results: Eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed a multibanded pattern, suggesting that the species is polyploid. The total number of bands per locus ranged from 9 to 17, revealing high levels of polymorphism. • Conclusions: The high level of polymorphism detected with these markers indicates their utility in devising conservation strategies and rational exploitation of A. chica.
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