Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization

  • Reopanichkul P
  • Schlacher T
  • Carter R
 et al. 
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Abstract

Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Algae
  • Coral reefs
  • Nutrients
  • Reef fish
  • Sewage pollution

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Authors

  • R W (Bill) CarterThe University of the Sunshine Coast

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  • Pasinee Reopanichkul

  • Thomas A. Schlacher

  • Suchai Worachananant

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