Many developing countries like Tanzania are endowed with natural resources that are needed for sustenance of the poverty-stricken populaces. Balancing the benefits of development that is needed to move the population out of poverty with the threat of loss or degradation of the natural resources on which the communities depend requires a complex and well-informed decision-making process. In this chapter, two conservation areas, Lake Natron and Kitulo Plateau, are used to exemplify the challenges and delineate best practices, with Kitulo presenting a notable example of conservation to be emulated. With the explosive population growth projected for Tanzania over the coming decades, the stakes for human welfare, biological conservation, and the achievement of sustainability are very high.
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