Short-term effects of different amounts of protein, fats, and carbohydrates on satiety.

  • de Graaf C
  • Hulshof T
  • Weststrate J
 et al. 
  • 37


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This study investigated the satiating efficiencies of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (CHOs). Twenty-nine female, normal-weight subjects each received 10 liquid breakfasts, which varied in energy and macronutrient contents. Besides a zero condition [0.3 MJ (8 kcal)], there were three energy levels [0.42, 1.05, and 1.67 MJ (100, 250, and 400 kcal)] combined with three dominant sources of macronutrients (99% of energy from CHO, 92% of energy from fat, and 77% of energy from protein). After breakfast the subjects were not allowed to eat or drink (except water) for 3.5 h. They then recorded their voluntary food intake for the remainder of the day. Subjects also rated their subjective feelings concerning food intake on five different types of appetite. The results showed that neither energy content nor macronutrient composition of the liquid breakfasts had any effect on energy and macronutrient intake during lunch and the remainder of the day. Ratings of different types of appetite showed an increasing satiating effect with increasing energy content of the breakfasts. Proteins, fats, and CHOs had similar effects on appetite.

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  • rt-term effects

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  • C de Graaf

  • T Hulshof

  • J a Weststrate

  • P Jas

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