The three members of the costimulatory receptor family, CD28, CTLA-4, and ICOS, have complementary effects on T cell activation, and their balance controls the overall outcome of immune and autoimmune responses. They are encoded in a short genomic interval, and overall activity may result from interplay between allelic variants at each locus. With multiethnic DNA panels that represent a wide spectrum of human populations, we demonstrate long-range linkage disequilibrium among the three genes. A large fraction of the variation found in the locus can be explained by the presence of extended haplotypes encompassing variants at CD28, CTLA4, and the ICOS promoter. There are unusual differences in the distribution of some variants and haplotypes between geographic regions. The differences may reflect demographic events and/or the adaptation to diverse environmental and microbial challenges encountered in the course of human migrations and will be important to consider when interpreting association to immune/autoimmune responsiveness.
Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research
Choose a citation style from the tabs below