Silylation and surface properties of chemically grafted hydrophobic silica

  • Capel-Sanchez M
  • Barrio L
  • Campos-Martin J
 et al. 
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Abstract

A commercial mesoporous silica (Grace Davison) was chemically grafted with trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl) and hexamethyldisilanaze (HMDS). The silylation process brought about some reduction in the specific BET area, the pore volume, and the pore sizes of the samples. Thermogravimetric studies of the silylated samples revealed that the grafting process is kinetically controlled at short reaction times. In the kinetic regime, increasing concentrations of the silylant agent up to 2 wt% in the solvent led to an increase of the extent of the silylated surface, although this limitation disappeared at higher concentrations. Silylation was confirmed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFTS),29Si CP-MAS NMR, and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopic techniques. Solid-state29Si MAS-NMR spectra of the silylated samples revealed the presence of -SiCH3groups (9.5 ppm) together with two resonances, Q3 (≈-104 ppm) and Q4 (≈-114 ppm), coming from siloxane [Qn∼Si(OSi)n(OH)4-n, n∼2-4] groups, the Q3 signal decreasing upon silylation. The DRIFT spectra of the silylated samples exhibited two well defined bands at 2970 and 2907 cm-1, due to stretching vibration modes of the C-H bonds in surface -CH3groups formed during the silylation process, and also the disappearance of the band at 3740 cm-1. This observation indicates the complete removal of terminal and geminal hydroxyl groups by grafting with the silylating agent. Similarly, high-resolution photoelectron spectra of the Si2p core levels showed a high binding-energy component (103.5 eV) in all the samples, coming from the Si coordinated with oxide anions in SiO2, together with a second component at 102.1 eV, which is the fingerprint of Si coordinated by oxide anions and an organic group. Finally, the samples were ranked according to their hydrophobicity, as determined from the temperature-programmed desorption profiles of adsorbed water and 2-methylbutane. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • 29Si MAS-NMR
  • DRIFTS
  • Hydrophobic silica surface
  • Silylated silica
  • XPS

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