Based on the two-step-switching model, the process of electromechanical poling of a ferroelectric ceramics is simulated. A difference of the remnant polarizations between two poling protocols (mechanical stress is applied before and after the application of poling field) is found from our simulations, which is also observed in experiment. An explanation is given to illustrate why the remnant polarization for the case that mechanical stress is loaded after the application of electric field is larger than the case that mechanical stress is loaded before the application of electric field. Our simulation results supply a proof for the validity of the two-step-switching model in the electromechanical poling of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics.
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