Introduction: Although prophylactic tranexamic acid (TXA) is a safe, low-cost option to reduce bleeding in patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR), its optimal dose and duration is unknown. We compared the safety and effectiveness of TXA given as either a single injection or continuous infusion in THR patients, hypothesising that a second TXA dose would not offer any clinical advantages over the single injection. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-four patients undergoing unilateral THR were randomised. Exclusion criteria were history of thromboembolic events (TE), epilepsy, thrombophilia, and severe chronic renal failure. Patients received either a single dose of 30 mg/kg TXA on induction of surgery (one shot [OS] group), or a loading dose of 10 mg/kg TXA followed two hours later by a continuous infusion of 2 mg/kg per hour for 20 hours (one day [OD] group). The primary outcome was blood loss (BL) calculated from haematocrit levels. Secondary outcomes were mortality and TE events within 90 days postoperatively. Results: All patients completed treatment, with none lost to follow-up. Mean BL was 1107 ± 508 ml in Group OS and 1047 ± 442 ml in Group OD (p = 0.43). No patients were transfused prior to Day 10 postoperatively. At final follow-up, no patients had died, and there were no occurrences of major TE. Conclusion: The 30 mg/kg TXA single shot was as safe as continuous infusion. As it is also less cumbersome, we recommend it as part of routine care in THR patients.
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