Siphonal Structure in the Veneridae ( Bivalvia : Heterodonta ) With an Assessment of Its Phylogenetic Application and a Review of Venerids of the Gulf of Thailand

  • Sartori A
  • Mikkelsen P
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A survey of venerid bivalves of the Gulf of Thailand revealed 78 species belonging to 10 of the 14 recognised subfamilies. Included in this survey were 25 species collected during a fi eld workshop held near Chantaburi in the northern Gulf of Thailand during August–September 2005; all species are known previously from that location. Fifteen species belonging to seven subfamilies were observed alive for characters of the siphons, including relative length, degree of union (“fusion”), pigmentation, number, branching pattern and distribution of the tentacles, behaviour during siphoning, and the effects of preservation on these characters. Examination of the marginal mantle folds revealed one outer and three inner folds (i.e., OF, IF-1, IF-2, and IF-3, relative to the periostracal groove) per side. Only the innermost (“fourth” or IF- 3) mantle folds are involved in forming the venerid siphons, contrary to most published opinions that also include the second innermost (“third” or IF-2) mantle fold in the process. Siphonal formation in venerids thus most closely resembles Type A of Yonge, rather than Type B as has been interpreted by most authors. Preservation has its most severe effects on separated siphons, which can appear falsely united, either entirely or to an extent different from that observed in living specimens. Subfamily characterisations for eight of the recognised venerid subfamilies are provided based upon these data and previously published reports using living specimens. When mapped on a previously published recent phylogeny, no phylogenetic patterns emerge, suggesting that siphonal characters are highly homoplastic

Author-supplied keywords

  • characters
  • diversity
  • homoplasy
  • morphology
  • phylogenetics
  • siphons

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  • André Fernando Sartori

  • Paula M Mikkelsen

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