The purpose of this study was to measure the structural stiffness (load/displacement response) and elastic modulus (stress-strain response) of the glenoid labrum at different locations throughout the tissue. It was intended that the results of this work would serve to define the properties of the labrum. This in turn may permit a better understanding of labral function and of the mechanics of injury or degeneration and may ultimately contribute to improving the design of future labral reconstruction procedures. In addition, these data may allow incorporation of labral properties into a glenoid arthroplasty component. The testing procedure consisted of rapid compression of the labrum using a flat indentor. Stiffness and modulus results demonstrated differences between the superior and inferior portions of the labrum. The elastic moduli findings for the labrum were 0.18 +/- 0.17, 0.11 +/- 0.16, and 0.23 +/- 0.20 MPa for the inferior anterior, inferior, and inferior posterior sections, respectively. The superior anterior, superior, and superior posterior sections were respectively 0.19 +/- 0.09, 0. 32 +/- 0.22, and 0.41 +/- 0.32 MPa. These results are similar to those of knee menisci. The modulus findings for the substrate cartilage were 1.92 +/- 0.78, 1.99 +/- 0.70, and 2.00 +/- 1.33 MPa for the inferior anterior, inferior, and inferior posterior sections, respectively. The superior anterior, superior, and superior posterior sections were respectively 1.60 +/- 0.79, 1.29 +/- 0.75, and 1.42 +/- 0.54 MPa, which are comparable to previous cartilage findings.
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