Abundances of small, terrestrial mammals were estimated in 10 and 100-ha, isolated and non-isolated primary forest reserves near Manuas, Brazil between October 1983 and March 1984. The small mammal abundance patterns in a 10 ha reserve isolated for approximately three years differed signifiicantly from that in other reserves, primarily due to higher capture rates of Marmosa cinera, Rhipidomys mastacalis, and Oryzomys paricola in the isolated reserve. Diet type and re-invasion potential may be important factors structuring small mammal communities in forest patches. Variation in the small mammal community among other reserves was primarily due to variations in the abundances of Proechimys and Oryzomys capito. At least part of this variation was attributable to temporal effects, but variation due to reserve effects also was suggested. Small mammals were much more abundant in the reserves during the present study than in 1982.
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