Limited understanding of small-scale fishing communities has hindered appropriate management initiatives in coastal communities which are threatening livelihoods. Informants' stakeholder interviews and questionnaires from local fishermen were used to gain knowledge of fishing factors, perceptions and threat to the small-scale fishing community in a coastal region in the province of Phang-nga, Thailand. Results revealed communities utilising multi-geared, multi-species fisheries with a preference for marketable species that sell on a local scale. Whilst subsistence and local markets share equally the use of catches, there is a noticeable decline in small-scale fishers being recruited into the industry. This was considered by some to be due to urbanisation and by others to opportunities in tourism but was viewed as a socio-economic shift by government informants towards medium sized operations formed by resilient groups. Current management can be classified as open access, with virtually no management or regulations in place. This has led to fishers listing failing stocks and commercial fleets as the biggest threats to their livelihoods. Management initiatives are needed to focus on protecting and improving coastal stocks by clamping down on illegal activity large-scale from fishers and reviewing fishers access for resource protection.
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