Nanoparticle technologies intended for human administration must be designed to interact with, and ideally leverage, a living host environment. Here, we describe smart nanosystems classified in two categories: (i) those that sense the host environment and respond and (ii) those that first prime the host environment to interact with engineered nanoparticles. Smart nanosystems have the potential to produce personalized diagnostic and therapeutic schema by using the local environment to drive material behavior and ultimately improve human health.
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