To abate problems resulting from increased car use, hard transport policy measures have been introduced. Such measures often meet public disapproval, are politically infeasible, and may alone be insufficient. As a consequence, alternative soft transport policy measures have been proposed. These measures are designed to motivate individuals to voluntarily reduce car use. This paper reviews implementations of soft transport policy measures in Japan, Australia, UK, and several other countries. The review underscores the effectiveness of soft transport policy measures in general and points to a variety of positive outcomes. Yet, the variety in the results makes it hard to infer why the measures are effective. Several gaps of knowledge are also identified. A companion paper will discuss these and identify research needs.
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