There is a demand and need for healthy solid dietary fats. However, synthetic fats can be tailored to contain specific physiologic properties. Our goal was to design dietary solid test fats that would be both beneficial to the atherogenic lipid profile and stable against lipid peroxidation. Sixteen men (age 35-75 y) substituted 80 g of their normal dietary fat intake with test fat for two periods of 21 d each in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Although solid, both test fats were low in cholesterol-raising SFA. Test fat "F" contained 5 g/100 g long chain (n-3) fatty acids matched by oleic acid in test fat "O." Plasma total triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL TAG, cholesterol in VLDL, and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) were lower (P < 0.05), whereas apolipoprotein (apo) B of the large LDL-2 (d = 1031-1042 g/L) subclass, and cholesterol of HDL(2b) subclass, were higher after intake of F than O fat (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the effect on in vivo oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F(2) to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion, a solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured by in vivo markers.
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