In recent years, companies have increased their use of internal and external sources in pursuit of a competitive advantage through the effective and timely commercialization of new technology. Grounded in the resource-based view of the firm, this study examines the effect of a company's use of internal and external sources on multiple dimensions of successful technology commer-cialization (TC). The study also explores the moderating role of formal vs. informal integration mechanisms on these relationships. Applying a longitudinal design and data from 119 companies, the results show that internal human and technology-based manufacturing sources are positively associated with successful TC. Formal and informal integration mechanisms also significantly moderate the relationships observed between capability sources and TC.
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