Journal article

Sources of relapse after extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental learning

Bouton M, Swartzentruber D ...see all

Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 11, issue 2 (1991) pp. 123-140

  • 86


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 244


    Citations of this article.
Sign in to save reference


Extinction may be related to therapeutic procedures designed to eliminate unwanted thoughts, emotions, or behaviors. This article reviews animal learning research which suggests that extinction does not erase the original learning, but rather makes behavior especially sensitive to the background, or context, in which it occurs. Context-dependence of responding is evident after extinction in both Pavlovian and instrumental (operant) learning. In either case, memories of conditioning and extinction are both retained through extinction, and are available for retrieval by appropriate retrieval cues. When the context promotes retrieval of extinction, extinction performance is observed. But when the context is changed, or when the current context promotes retrieval of conditioning, conditioning performance is often restored. These effects are produced by contexts provided by stimuli as diverse as physical environments, reinforcer after-effects, drug states, emotions, and the passage of time. The results have implications for relapse, and its prevention, following therapy. © 1991.

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Get full text


  • Mark E. Bouton

  • Dale Swartzentruber

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free