Species identification and chemical analysis of psychoactive fungi in the Hawaiian islands.

  • Merlin M
  • Allen J
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Abstract

Several fungi species collected in the Hawaiian Islands have been reported to be psychoactive. Previous chemical analyses together with the present study indicate that 5 coprophilous and one non-coprophilous species occurring in the islands are now known to contain psychoactive alkaloids. At least some of these species are consumed in the Hawaiian Islands, as well as elsewhere, for non-traditional, recreational purposes. These include Copelandia cyanescens (Berk. et Br.) Singer, Copelandia tropicalis (Ola'h) Singer and Weeks (syn. Panaeolus tropicalis Ola'h), Copelandia anomala Murrill, and Panaeolus subbalteatus (Berk. and Br.) Sacc., which have already been described from the Hawaiian Islands. Three more mind-altering fungi and one non-psychoactive species are reported from this archipelago for the first time. These psychoactive fungi include Copelandia bispora (Malençon et Bertault) Singer and Weeks from O'ahu, Copelandia cambodginiensis (Ola'h et Heim) Singer and Weeks from O'ahu, and Amanita muscaria (L.) Hooker from Kaua'i. Panaeolus goossensiae Beeli identified from O'ahu contains tryptamine compounds; however, the psychoactive alkaloids psilocybin and psilocin were not found in this dung species.

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Authors

  • M D Merlin

  • John W Allen

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