Bacteriophages represent a group of viruses that specifically infect and replicate in bacteria and could potentially be used to reduce recovery of Salmonella from poultry carcasses. Bacteriophages were isolated from municipal wastewater in the presence of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 13A (SE). In the first 2 experiments, commercially processed broiler carcass rinse water was pooled and divided. The addition of 10(10) pfu/mL of a single bacteriophage (PHL 4) with selected concentrations of SE reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of SE recovered as compared with the control rinse water sample. In experiments 3 and 4, broiler carcasses were intentionally inoculated with SE, sprayed with selected concentrations of PHL 4, and rinsed for SE enrichment and isolation. Application of 5.5 mL of 10(8) or 10(10) pfu/mL of PHL 4 reduced (P < 0.05) the frequency of SE recovery as compared with controls. In experiments 5 and 6, commercially processed turkeys were rinsed with water containing 72 wild-type bacteriophages isolated against SE, which were amplified in SE, or the Salmonella isolated antemortem from drag swabs from the flock selected for in-plant treatment, or a combination of bacteriophages amplified by each bacterial host. All bacteriophage treatments reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of Salmonella recovery as compared with controls. Sufficient concentrations of an appropriate bacteriophage, or a bacteriophage mixture, can significantly reduce recoverable Salmonella from carcass rinses.
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