Spin pumping is the emission of a spin current by a magnetization dynamics while spin transfer stands for the excitation of magnetization by spin currents. Using Onsager's reciprocity relations we prove that spin pumping and spin-transfer torques are two fundamentally equivalent dynamic processes in magnetic structures with itinerant electrons. We review the theory of the coupled motion of the magnetization order parameter and electron for textured bulk ferromagnets (e.g. containing domain walls) and heterostructures (such as spin valves). We present first-principles calculations for the material-dependent damping parameters of magnetic alloys. Theoretical and experimental results agree in general well.
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