In this paper two different approaches to guarantee stability of bilateral telemanipulation systems are discussed. Both approaches inject damping into the system to guarantee passivity of the interaction with the device in the presence of time delays in the communication channel. The first approach derives tuning rules for a fixed viscous damper, whereas the second approach employs modulated dampers based upon the measured energy exchange with the device and enforces passivity in the time domain. Furthermore, a theoretical minimum damping injection scheme is sketched that shows that the fixed damping approach is inherently conservative with respect to guaranteeing stability. Experimental results show that both the theoretical minimum damping scheme and a time domain passivity algorithm are successful in stabilizing the telemanipulation system for large time delays with lower gains of the damping elements than derived by the fixed damping injection approach. However, as damping is inherently present in the system, the fixed damping tuning rules can be used to identify if a time domain passivity algorithm is needed given boundary conditions on the actual time delays.
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