Standard of care and promising new agents for triple negative metastatic breast cancer

  • P. M
  • A. A
  • E. R
 et al. 
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Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a cluster of heterogeneous diseases, all of them sharing the lack of expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 protein. They are characterized by different biological, molecular and clinical features, including a poor prognosis despite the increased sensitivity to the current cytotoxic therapies. Several studies have identified important molecular features which enable further subdivision of this type of tumor. We are drawing from genomics, transcription and translation analysis at different levels, to improve our knowledge of the molecular alterations along the pathways which are activated during carcinogenesis and tumor progression. How this information should be used for the rational selection of therapy is an ongoing challenge and the subject of numerous research studies in progress. Currently, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), HSP90 and Aurora inhibitors are most used as targeting agents in metastatic setting clinical trials. In this paper we will review the current knowledge about the genetic subtypes of TNBC and their different responses to conventional therapeutic strategies, as well as to some new promising molecular target agents, aimed to achieve more tailored therapies.Copyright © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *health care quality
  • *triple negative breast cancer/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • *triple negative metastatic breast cancer
  • 1 [4 [(5 cyclopropyl 1h pyrazol 3 yl)amino]pyrrolo
  • 8 [4 (1 aminocyclobutyl)phenyl] 9 phenyl 1,2,4 tri
  • DNA microarray
  • DNA repair
  • advanced cancer/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • alvespimycin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • androgen receptor postive breast cancer/dt [Drug T
  • antineoplastic agent/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • article
  • basal like 1 triple negative breast cancer
  • basal like 2 triple negative breast cancer
  • bevacizumab/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • bicalutamide/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • breast cancer/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • breast metastasis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • buparlisib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • cabazitaxel/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • cancer cell
  • cancer classification
  • cancer growth
  • cancer incidence
  • cancer prognosis
  • cancer regression
  • cancer resistance
  • capecitabine/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • carboplatin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • carcinogenicity
  • cetuximab/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • chemosensitivity
  • cisplatin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • clinical trial (topic)
  • dactolisib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • dasatinib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • docetaxel/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • enzalutamide/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • erlotinib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • everolimus/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • feedback system
  • fluorescence in situ hybridization
  • ganetespib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • gefitinib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • gene expression profiling
  • gene mutation
  • gene rearrangement
  • gene targeting
  • heat shock protein 90 inhibitor/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • human
  • human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative
  • human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpre
  • immunomodulatory triple negative breast cancer
  • iniparib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • luminal androgen receptor triple negative breast c
  • mesenchymal stem like triple negative breast cance
  • mesenchymal triple negative breast cancer
  • metastasis potential
  • molecular interaction
  • molecularly targeted therapy
  • paclitaxel/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • pembrolizumab/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • phase 1 clinical trial (topic)
  • phase 2 clinical trial (topic)
  • phase 3 clinical trial (topic)
  • phenotype
  • pictilisib/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • plx 3397/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • protein expression
  • pu h 71/dt [Drug Therapy] XT - advanced cancer /
  • randomized controlled trial (topic)
  • tanespimycin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • treatment response
  • triple negative breast cancer/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • triple negative metastatic breast cancer/dt [Drug
  • unclassified drug
  • unindexed drug
  • unstable triple negative breast cancer
  • veliparib/dt [Drug Therapy]

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  • Mancini P.

  • Angeloni A.

  • Risi E.

  • Orsi E.

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