Standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography

  • Schmidt W
  • Schmidt H
  • Schicke B
 et al. 
  • 135

    Readers

    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 190

    Citations

    Citations of this article.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography in healthy adults. METHODS: Ultrasonography was performed on 204 shoulders, elbows, hands, hips, knees, and feet of 102 healthy volunteers (mean age 38.4 years; range 20-60; 54 women) with a linear probe (10-5 MHz; Esaote Technos MP). Diameters of tendons, bursae, cartilage, erosions, hypoechoic rims around tendons and at joints were measured with regard to established standard scans. Mean, minimum, and maximum values, as well as two standard deviations (2 SD) were determined. Mean values +/-2 SD were defined as standard reference values. RESULTS: Hypoechoic rims were normally present in joints and tendon sheaths owing to physiological synovial fluid and/or cartilage. Similarly, fluid was found in the subdeltoid bursa in 173/204 (85%), at the long biceps tendon in 56 (27%), in the suprapatellar recess in 158 (77%), in the popliteal bursae in 32 (16%), and in the retrocalcaneal bursa in 49 (24%). Erosions of >1 mm were seen at the humeral head in 47 (23%). Values for important intervals were determined. The correlation between two investigators was 0.96 (0.78-0.99). The reliability of follow up investigations was 0.83 (0.52-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Fluid in bursae as well as hypoechoic rims within joints and around tendons are common findings in healthy people. This study defines standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography to prevent misinterpretation of normal fluid as an anatomical abnormality.

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Authors

  • W. A. Schmidt

  • H. Schmidt

  • B. Schicke

  • E. Gromnica-Ihle

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free