Children and youths are at risk of some negative outcomes because of hazards in their environment. A review of the literature on resilience provides guidelines for minimizing risks and promoting positive outcomes for children and youths. This article provides a rationale for incorporating resilience-building efforts in schools and explores ways in which the school environment could be structured to strengthen resilience in children and youths. The author proposes that schools can strengthen resilience by developing social competence, increasing bonding between students and caring adults, communicating high expectations for students' academic and social performance, maximizing opportunities for meaningful participation of students in the school environment, promoting resilience in school teachers and staff, and creating partnerships with families and community resources. Limitations of a school-focused approach for enhancing resilience and implications for social work policy and practice are also discussed.
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