This review article summarizes recent progress in the fabrication methodologies and functional modulations of nanoparticle (NP)–polymer composites. On the basis of the techniques of NP synthesis and surface modification, the fabrication methods of nanocomposites are highlighted; these include surface-initiated polymerization on NPs, in situ formation of NPs in polymer media, and the incorporation through covalent linkages and supramolecular assemblies. In these examples, polymers are foremost hypothesized as inert hosts that stabilize and integrate the functionalities of NPs, thus improving the macroscopic performance of NPs. Furthermore, due to the unique physicochemical properties of polymers, polymer chains are also dynamic under heating, swelling, and stretching. This creates an opportunity for modulating NP functionalities within the preformed nanocomposites, which will undoubtedly promote the developments of optoelectronic devices, optical materials, and intelligent materials.
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