Research on knowledge flows in multinational corporations has grown considerably over the last 15 years or so. Part of the growth has resulted in the field becoming more " fluid" and thus prone to multiple definitions and measures of the same notions and constructs, as well as leading to contrary findings. We systematically and critically review the literature on knowledge flows in multinational corporations that has defined the subsidiary as the focal unit of analysis. We classify existing studies into four categories depending on the focus of examination: outcomes of knowledge flows, knowledge characteristics, actors involved in the knowledge flows, and relationships between these actors. On the basis of 92 articles published in 15 top management and international business journals from 1996 to 2009 inclusive we identify key accomplishments, existing gaps and future research directions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
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