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Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

Ward T, Smith G, Wei S, Shen G, Zhang Y, Xue M, Xie H, Lin P, Chen Y, Wang X, Tao S, Westerholm R, Almen J, Li H, Rannug J, Egebaeck K, Graegg K, Weimer S, Mohr C, Richter R, Keller J, Mohr M, Prévôt A, Baltensperger U, White S, Jamie I, Angove D, Willoughby A, Wozniak A, Hatcher P, Gurganus S, Wu S, Deng F, Wei H, Shima M, Huang J, Lv H, Hao Y, Zheng C, Qin Y, Lu X, Guo X, Wyche K, Ryan A, Hewitt C, Alfarra M, McFiggans G, Carr T, Monks P, Smallbone K, Capes G, Hamilton J, Pugh T, MacKenzie A, Xie M, Piedrahita R, Dutton S, Milford J, Hemann J, Peel J, Miller S, Kim S, Vedal S, Sheppard L, Hannigan M, Xu J, Zhang Q, Chen M, Ge X, Ren J, Qin D, Xing L, Fu T, Cao J, Lee S, Wang G, Ho K, Cheng M, You C, Wang T, Wang Z, Yu G, Qin X, Yamamoto S, Phalkey R, Malik A, Yang A, Jedynska A, Hellack B, Kooter I, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Kuhlbusch T, Cassee F, Janssen N, Yang L, Nguyen D, Jia S, Reid J, Yu L, Yoo J, Lee Y, Kim D, Jeong M, Stockwell W, Kundu P, Oh S, Shin D, Yttri K, Dye C, Kiss G, Lund Myhre C, Eckhardt S, Fiebig M, Hirdman D, Ström J, Klimont Z, Stohl A, Yu J, Griffin R, Cocker D, Flagan R, Seinfeld J, Blanchard P, Yue X, Mickley L, Logan J, Kaplan J, Zhang L, Chen X, Xue X, Sun M, Han B, Li C, Ma J, Yu H, Sun Z, Zhao L, Zhao B, Liu Y, Chen J, Wang P, Bai Z, Tang N, Zhang T, Claeys M, Cachier H, Dong S, Wang W, Maenhaut W, Liu X, Zhang W, Du Y, Zhai M, Shang Q, Zhang X, Rao R, Huang Y, Mao M, Berg M, Sun W, Tang L, Sun Y, Liu D, Qin W, Zhang H, Zhou H, Zotter P, Perron N, Wacker L, Szidat S, Sun J, Hu G, Shen X, Wang Y, Wang D, Zhao Y, Zhao D, Kaminski M, Schlag P, Fuchs H, Acir I, Bohn B, Häseler R, Kiendler-Scharr A, Rohrer F, Tillmann R, Wang M, Wegener R, Wildt J, Wahner A, Mentel T, Zhao P, Dong F, He D, Zhao X, Yao Q, Liu H, Zhao R, Mungall E, Lee A, Aljawhary D, Abbatt J, Cliff S, Wexler A, Javed W, Perry K, Pan Y, Mitloehner F, Zhi G, Feng Y, Xiong S, Li J, Zhang G, Sheng G, Fu J, Zhuang B, Li S, Deng J, Yin C, Zhu J, Zhuang H, Chan C, Fang M, Ciobanu V, El-Haddad I, Macchia M, Daellenbach K, Salazar G, Huang R, Hueglin C, Piazzalunga A, Fermo P, Schwikowski M, Aggarwal S, Kawamura K, Umarji G, Tachibana E, Patil R, Gupta P, Afif C, Chélala C, Borbon A, Abboud M, Adjizian-Gérard J, Farah W, Jambert C, Zaarour R, Badaro Saliba N, Perros P, Rizk T, Achad M, López M, Ceppi S, Palancar G, Germán T, Toselli B, Abu-Allaban M, Gertler A, Lowenthal D, Abril G, Wannaz E, Mateos A, Pignata M, Abiye O, Obioh I, Ezeh G, Arhami M, Minguillón M, Polidori A, Schauer J, Delfino R, Sioutas C, Aragón M, Borrull F, Marcé R, Aouizerats B, van der Werf G, Balasubramanian R, Betha R, Antonel J, Chowdhury Z, Andreae M, Rosenfeld D, Andreae T, Annegarn H, Beer J, Le Canut P, Elbert W, Salma I, Wienhold F, Zenker T, Ancelet T, Davy P, Trompetter W, Markwitz A, Weatherburn D, Amato F, Denier van der Gon H, Gehrig R, Gustafsson M, Hafner W, Harrison R, Jozwicka M, Kelly F, Moreno T, Prevot A, Schaap M, Sunyer J, Querol X, Pandolfi M, Alastuey A, Lozano A, Contreras González J, de la Rosa J, Sánchez de la Campa A, Alves C, Nunes T, Vicente A, Gonçalves C, Evtyugina M, Marques T, Pio C, Bate-Epey F, Almeida S, Freitas M, Reis M, Trancoso M, Alam M, Delgado-Saborit J, Stark C, Ait-Helal W, Sauvage S, de Gouw J, Colomb A, Gros V, Freutel F, Crippa M, Beekmann M, Doussin J, Durand-Jolibois R, Fronval I, Grand N, Leonardis T, Lopez M, Michoud V, Miet K, Perrier S, Schneider J, Siour G, Zapf P, Locoge N, Aikawa M, Hiraki T, Tomoyose N, Ohizumi T, Noguchi I, Murano K, Mukai H, Ahlm L, Shakya K, Russell L, Schroder J, Wong J, Sjostedt S, Hayden K, Liggio J, Wentzell J, Wiebe H, Mihele C, Leaitch W, Macdonald A, Agudelo-Castañeda D, Teixeira E, Hamilton Jr R, Dixon R, Paulsen M, Simpson C, Wanger A, Peleg M, Sharf G, Mahrer Y, Dayan U, Kallos G, Kotroni V, Lagouvardos K, Varinou M, Papadopoulos A, Luria M, Na G, Ma X, Fang X, Ge L, Gao H, Yao Z, Zhuang G, Chen S, An Z, Zheng A, He K, Chai L, Cheng T, Zhang R, Beelen R, Stafoggia M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen Z, Hoffmann B, Fischer P, Houthuijs D, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Weinmayr G, Vineis P, Xun W, Dimakopoulou K, Samoli E, Laatikainen T, Lanki T, Turunen A, Oftedal B, Schwarze P, Aamodt G, Penell J, De Faire U, Korek M, Leander K, Pershagen G, Pedersen N, Östenson C, Fratiglioni L, Eriksen K, Sørensen M, Tjønneland A, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Eeftens M, Bots M, Meliefste K, Krämer U, Heinrich J, Sugiri D, Key T, de Hoogh K, Wolf K, Peters A, Cyrys J, Jaensch A, Concin H, Nagel G, Tsai M, Phuleria H, Ineichen A, Künzli N, Probst-Hensch N, Schaffner E, Vilier A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Declerq C, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Marcon A, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Katsoulis M, Trichopoulou A, Keuken M, Kukkonen J, Sokhi R, Katsouyanni K, Wang J, Yang Y, Li Y, Deng G, Wang L, Tong S, Toloo G, Yu W, Chew C, Chang C, Liao W, Lung S, Chen W, Lee P, Wang H, Zhu B, Shen L, An J, Yin Y, Kang H, Tao J, Ren Y, Wu F, Cheng C, Meng J, Cheng Y, Liu S ...see all

Atmospheric Environment, vol. 14, issue 0 (2014) pp. 70-77 Published by Copernicus Publications

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Abstract

The aerosol number concentration and size distribution as well as size-resolved particle chemical composition were measured during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai in 2009. The number of haze days accounted for 43%, of which 30% was severe (visibility < 2 km) and moderate (2 km ≤ visibility < 3 km) haze, mainly distributed in winter and spring. The mean particle number concentration was about 17,000 cm− 3 in haze, more than 2 times that in clean days. The greatest increase of particle number concentration was in 0.5–1 μm and 1–10 μm size fractions during haze events, about 17.78 times and 8.78 times those of clean days. The largest increase of particle number concentration was within 50–100 nm and 100–200 nm fractions during photochemical smog episodes, about 5.89 times and 4.29 times those of clean days. The particle volume concentration and surface concentration in haze, photochemical smog and clean days were 102, 49, 15 μm3/cm3 and 949, 649, 206 μm2/cm3, respectively. As haze events got more severe, the number concentration of particles smaller than 50 nm decreased, but the particles of 50–200 nm and 0.5–1 μm increased. The diurnal variation of particle number concentration showed a bimodal pattern in haze days. All soluble ions were increased during haze events, of which NH4+, SO42 − and NO3− increased greatly, followed by Na+, K+, Ca2 + and Cl−. These ions were very different in size-resolved particles during haze and photochemical smog episodes.

Author-supplied keywords

  • 0305 Aerosols and particles
  • 0315 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Biosph
  • 0315 Biosphere/atmosphere interactions
  • 0322 Constituent sources and sinks
  • 0345 Pollution: urban and regional
  • 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Tropos
  • 3329 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Mesosca
  • Adaptive weight parameter
  • Aerosol concentration
  • Aerosols
  • Air
  • Air Pollutants/*analysis
  • Air Pollution
  • Air pollutants
  • Air pollution
  • Air quality
  • Air samples
  • Ambient lead
  • Ammonium
  • Analysis
  • Anthropogenic aerosols
  • Arctic Ocean
  • Aromatic photooxidation
  • Ascorbate acid depletion
  • Atmospheric aerosol particles
  • BaPeq
  • Beijing
  • Beirut
  • Berner Impactor
  • Biomarkers
  • Biomass burning
  • Black carbon
  • Brake
  • CCN
  • CFO
  • Cadmium
  • Cameroon
  • Carbon/*analysis
  • Carbonaceous particulate matter
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cardiovascular mortality
  • Cement plant
  • Chemical component
  • Chemical composition
  • Chemical mass balance model
  • Chemical tracers
  • China
  • Coal/*analysis
  • Condensation function
  • Constituents
  • Córdoba
  • Córdoba City
  • DTT
  • Dairy
  • Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic ratio
  • Direct effects
  • Dust
  • ESCAPE
  • ESR
  • Elemental concentrations
  • Emission
  • Emission Factor Estimation technique
  • Emission factor
  • Ensemble projection
  • Environmental Monitoring/methods
  • Environmental chemistry
  • Equipment Design
  • Exposure
  • Externally mixing states
  • FCT
  • FMPS
  • Field measurement
  • Fine fraction
  • Fuel load
  • GC-MS
  • Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
  • Gas phase
  • Gas/particle partitioning
  • HYSPLIT
  • Haze
  • Health effects
  • Heating
  • Heavy metal enrichment factors
  • High particulate air pollution
  • Hong Kong
  • Household Articles
  • Humidity
  • Hydrocarbons
  • ISC3
  • Incineration
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Indoor and outdoor pollution
  • Indoor crop straw burning
  • Indoor/analysis
  • Inflammation
  • Influencing factor
  • Internally mixing states
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Isoprene
  • Isotopologues
  • Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA
  • Katabatic flow
  • Levoglucosan
  • Long-range transport
  • Long-term exposure
  • Lung function
  • Marker
  • Metal
  • Meteorological condition
  • Mitigation
  • Mobile measurements
  • Montana
  • Mortality
  • Multilinear Regression
  • N-Acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase
  • New Zealand
  • Nitrate
  • Nucleation mode
  • Organic aerosol
  • Organic compounds
  • Organic molecular markers
  • Organophosphate esters
  • Outdoor air pollution
  • Oxidative potential
  • PAHs
  • PIXE
  • PM0.25-0.5
  • PM0.5-1
  • PM1.0
  • PM10
  • PM2.5
  • PMF
  • PMF model
  • Particle Size
  • Particle fraction
  • Particle number concentration
  • Particulate Matter
  • Particulate matter
  • Passive sampler
  • Photochemical smog
  • Photooxidation
  • Phthalate esters
  • Physiological parameters
  • Policy.
  • Pollution
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon sources
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Positive matrix factorization
  • Primary source
  • Quinone
  • RDI sampler
  • Radiative forcing
  • Radiocarbon
  • Rainfall
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Reactivity
  • Reconstructed PM2.5 mass
  • Remote sensing
  • Renal damage
  • Resuspension
  • Retrospective cohort
  • Road dust
  • Secondary organic aerosols (SOA)
  • Secondary pollutant
  • Secondary source
  • Shanghai
  • Shipping emission
  • Size distribution
  • Size distributions
  • Smoke
  • Soot-air model
  • Source apportionment
  • Source region
  • South Asia
  • Southeast Asia
  • Spatio-temporal analysis
  • Speciation
  • Statistical significance
  • Submicrometer particles
  • Sulfate
  • Sulfur dioxide
  • Surface measurement over South Korea
  • Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence
  • T. capillaris transplants
  • TRANSPHORM
  • Temperature
  • Temperature-stratified
  • The elderly
  • Thermal desorption
  • Tillandsia capillaris
  • Toluene and NOx
  • Traffic
  • Transboundary
  • Tyre
  • Ultrafine particles
  • Urban air pollution
  • Valley air pollution
  • Vehicular tracer
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • Washout
  • Wet deposition
  • Wildfire
  • Wildland forest fire
  • Wood burning
  • XRF
  • admissions
  • aerosol
  • africa
  • air masses
  • air-pollution
  • airborne particulate matter
  • atmospheric aerosols
  • australia
  • background sites
  • carbonaceous particles
  • chemical elements
  • clouds
  • coarse particles
  • diagnostic ratios
  • dust
  • elemental carbon
  • emissions
  • european coast
  • fine
  • fine particles
  • impact
  • mass closure
  • mobile sources
  • new particle formation
  • number concentration
  • organic carbon
  • organic speciation
  • organic-compounds
  • particles
  • particulate matter
  • pm10 aerosols
  • precipitation
  • samples
  • seasonal variation
  • sources
  • spatial variability
  • tracers
  • urban
  • β2-Microglobulin

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