Three patterns of superficial mandibular musculature are described in hemiphractine hylid frogs. One of these is unique to the morphologically bizarre Hemiphractus. A second pattern is found in Flectonotus and also occurs in some species of Gastrotheca and Stefania. A third pattern involves a differentiated apical element of the m. intermandibularis and is found in Cryptobatrachus, many species of Gastrotheca, and one species of Stefania. Evidence supports the plesiomorphic state of an undifferentiated m. intermandibularis and two derived states of differentiation of that muscle. One of these is the development of supplementary posterolateral elements characteristic of the Phyllomedusinae, whereas the differentiation of an apical element has occurred in at least six independent lineages--the entire Pelodryadinae, three unrelated genera of Hylinae, and two genera of Hemiphractinae. Gastrotheca and Stefania are the only anuran genera known to include species possessing, and others lacking, differentiation of the m. intermandibularis. Vocal sacs and apertures are absent in Cryptobatrachus, Hemiphractus, Stefania, and six species of Gastrotheca.
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