ventricular repolarization is also abnormal in left bundle branch block (LB BB). The T wave in LBBB is always lar ge and opposite in polarit y to the QRS complex. 1 LBBB occurs secondary to degenerative conduction sys-tem disease, left ventricular myocardial disease, or diseases that produce severe left ventricular hypertrophy. Because the left bundle branches early and widely throughout the left ventricle, LBBB usually indicates widespread disease. LBBB almo st never occurs by itself as a benign abnorm alit y. SJ: Right bundle branch block in the dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 160:1104, 1972. An excellent veterinary paper that describes the variations in morphology that one can see with RBBB in the dog (e.g., QRS morphology that can be normal at times and abnormal at other times). Branch CE, Robertson BT, Williams JC: Frequency of second-degree atrio-ventricular heart blocks in dogs, Am J Vet Res 36:925, 1975. An excellent veterinary paper that describes the frequency and breed associa-tions of second-degree AV blocks in dogs. Kittleson MD: Electrocardiography, diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias. In Kittleson MD, Kienle RD, editors: Small animal cardiovascular medi-cine, St Louis, 1998, Mosby. Classic textbook of clinical cardiology. Excellent chapter that provides in-depth information for understanding the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of bradyarrhythmias in the context of an excellent reference textbook on cardio-vascular medicine. Sisson D, Oyama M: Cardiovascular medicine of companion animals. Course outline for cardiovascular medicine, Champagne Urbana, IL, 2003, Univer-sity of Illinois School of Veterinary Medicine. Excellent overview of cardiovascular physiology and medicine; personal com-munication with authors. Not available in print.
Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research
Choose a citation style from the tabs below