Syria's Muslim Brethren

  • Batatu H
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Abstract

Who are the SMB, what is their social significance...?

PROGRAM AND IDEAS (12)
anti-Alawi stance (13)
Iran
classical liberal program 1980s
economic demands

ROOTS OF THE MOVEMENT (14)
Origins: Egypt - men of religion (cities)
numerics
income of the men of religion as a class associated with SMBs origins
need to trade etc. as well to survive
connection shaikhly class - tradesmen
economic self-support - independence from the state (15)
radical offspring
shaikhly class seen positively in society - no economic burden

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SMALL TRADERS
urban small tradesmen and artisans among most religious people; akin to them in values and life
good connections with big traders (16), also Sunni
after 1963 influence big merchants declined, yet still are influential regarding suq al-Hamaduyya
both affected by coopertaives
significance of small trading class and artsans in numbers

THE MOVEMENT IN SYRIA (17)
origins of Syrian Movement in Aleppo
reasons therefore...(French and British intervention cut market)
move to Damascus
WW 2 merchants profit - lose interest in SMB
1948 creation Israel - SMB impetus to SMB
small traders affected (lose Palestinian trade)
SMB favors Nassereists - dissolution in 1961 (UAR) (18)
development electoral performance 1949-1961
shows: support in the cities for SMB, yet rural support for bath

STAGES UNDER THE BATH
1) 1963-1968
rural-urban divide of support (not: sectarian/religious, yet sometimes tribal?)
mid-60s SMB calls for civil disobedience in the cities (19)
1965 polarzation within the army - Sunnis vs. minorities
1968 Aalawi dominence of the military completed
2) inner-Alawi divide 1968-170
tribal and personal questions, policies
split within SMB; military stance form 1968 onwards
3) 1970 onwards: Asad reigns; liberalization

THE BRETHREN AGAINST THE BATH
After 1975: economy suffers
Lebanon 1976;support for Maronites and against Palestinians (2)
Alawi dominance in key posts such as....
killings by SMB sinc late 1970s; first high ranking officials, then broader attacks
memebrship in late 1970s (educated!)
results
support lateron: difficult to measre in numbers (membership forbidden)

Author-supplied keywords

  • SMB;Alawis;Sunnis;sects;ulama;economy;development

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Authors

  • Hanna Batatu

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