BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is currently one of the most popular surgical obesity treatments worldwide. Although dietary modification is recognised as a key factor in determining weight loss and health outcomes post surgery, existing evidence regarding changes in dietary intake after LAGB has not been systematically evaluated. This is essential for developing best-practice dietetic guidelines for the management of LAGB patients. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence base regarding changes in dietary intake after LAGB. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library from 1990 to February 2010 was conducted to identify original studies that assessed dietary intake in adults who have undergone LAGB. RESULTS: Only 11 articles (10 separate studies) met inclusion criteria. Although the strength of the evidence base is limited by the small number of studies, observational study designs and methodological weaknesses, the results indicate that short-term positive changes occur post surgery, including reduced caloric intake, contributed to by reductions in fat, carbohydrate and protein intake. Issues including optimal macronutrient intake, diet quality and longer-term sustainability of reduced food intake remain largely unexplored. Because no dietary intervention studies were identified, evidence-based dietary strategies that may help optimise weight loss outcomes and other health outcomes remain unknown. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of high-quality evidence regarding changes in dietary intake after LAGB. Further well-designed, dietary-based intervention research will be beneficial to better establish dietetic management guidelines for optimising outcomes for individuals who have LAGB.
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