Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a powerful risk factor for all-cause mortality and its most common aetiology, cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Mineral metabolism disturbances occur very early during the course of CKD but their control has been poor. A number of studies have assessed the relationship between all-cause mortality, CV mortality and events with mineral disturbances in CKD patients, but with considerable discrepancy and heterogeneity in results. Thus, a systematic review was conducted to assess methodological and clinical heterogeneity by comparing designs, analytical approaches and results of studies.
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