Current simulation training initiatives predominantly occur in uniprofessional silos and do little to integrate different disciplines working in the operating room (OR). The objective of this review was to determine the current status of work describing simulation for full OR multidisciplinary teams including barriers to conducting OR multidisciplinary team training and factors contributing to successful courses. We found a total of 18 articles from 10 research groups. Various scenarios and simulators were used, and training sessions were generally perceived as realistic and beneficial by participants despite rudimentary integration of surgical and anesthetic models. Measures of performance involved a variety of both technical and nontechnical ratings of the simulations. Challenges to conducting the simulations included recruitment, model realism, and financial costs. Future work should focus on how best to overcome the barriers to implementation of team training interventions for full OR teams, particularly on how to engage senior staff to aid recruitment.
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