We show that oscillatory indirect magnetic exchange coupling via transition metals sandwiched between ferromagnetic layers of Fe, Co, Ni, or Ni alloys is a general phenomeonon. Surprisingly, the oscillation period is approximately the same, ≃10 Å, in all the transition metals in which we observe coupling with the single exception of Cr, for which it is much longer. Furthermore, the exchange-coupling strength is found to increase systematically from the 5d to 4d to 3d metals and exponentially with increasing number of d electrons along each period.
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