The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle--development and validation with air traffic management.

  • Kallus K
  • Hoffmann P
  • Winkler H
 et al. 
  • 10


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.


The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle (TEST) was developed as a new computerised scaling tool for quickly visualising changes in and trade-offs between the three critical factors that determine the work situation of air traffic management (ATM), i.e. taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers. Based on a task analysis of ATM and backed up by the stress-strain model, an easy-to-interpret triangle was constructed and validated both in simulated and real ATM workplaces. Results from the validation studies show that TEST does not only reflect the most relevant task characteristics, but also provides additional insights in the controllers' working styles. The TEST tool can make ATM safety surveys more efficient and help supervisors to decide about optimal times for opening or closing additional sectors. Statement of Relevance: TEST is a new tool to assess taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers in a joint scaling. It reflects increases in taskload and effects of taskload on safety-buffers and efficiency, as well as trade-offs in opposite directions. This tool might be very useful to check sector capacity in ATM and other high risk environments.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Accidents, Aviation
  • Accidents, Aviation: prevention & control
  • Decision Making, Computer-Assisted
  • Efficiency
  • Humans
  • Models, Organizational
  • Safety
  • Software
  • Stress, Psychological
  • Workload

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • K Wolfgang Kallus

  • Peter Hoffmann

  • Hildegard Winkler

  • Elisabeth M Vormayr

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free