Designing, fabricating, and integrating arrays of nanodevices into a functional system are the key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. We report large-array three-dimensional (3D) circuitry integration of piezotronic transistors based on vertical zinc oxide nanowires as an active taxel-addressable pressure/force sensor matrix for tactile imaging. Using the piezoelectric polarization charges created at a metal-semiconductor interface under strain to gate/modulate the transport process of local charge carriers, we designed independently addressable two-terminal transistor arrays, which convert mechanical stimuli applied to the devices into local electronic controlling signals. The device matrix can achieve shape-adaptive high-resolution tactile imaging and self-powered, multidimensional active sensing. The 3D piezotronic transistor array may have applications in human-electronics interfacing, smart skin, and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems.
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