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Teachers: Beliefs and Knowledge

Calderhead J ...see all

Handbook of Educational Psychology (1996) pp. 709-725

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Abstract

Review-Artikel über Forschung zu Teachers' Knowledge 1. Historical Background (Beschreibung der historischen Entwicklung von Forschung über Teachers' Knowledge) 2. Methodology (Beschreibung der einzelnen Methoden (Simulations, Commentaries, Concept Mapping and Repertory Grid, Ethnography and Case Studies, Narratives) Hinweis/Kritik zur Methode des stimulated recall Vorsicht ist geboten, weil sich das Denken nur schwer in Worten ausdrücken lässt; 3. Research on Teacher's Cognitions preactive Teaching (Planning ... occurs at different levels, ... is mostly informal, ... is creative, ... is knowledge based, ... must allow flexibility, ... occurs within a practical and ideological context) interactive Teaching teachers make few decisions in classroom, they focus on the children and the instructional process; implementing the the planned acitvity or adjusting the activity to the children and contexts by using well-established instructional routines; when teachers encounter a new situation, they draw on their past experiences to develop hypothesis about the nature of the problem and possible solutions) postactive Teaching (How does reflection facilitate to improve the quality of teachers' learning? three levels of reflection: technical, practical and critical level) Teachers' Knowledge - Subject Knowlege: Shulman (1986) suggest three main categories.Kritik am Modell von Shulmann transmission model, nicht konstruktivistisch, subject matter content knowlege facts and how they are organized, generated and tested as valid and acceptable; pedacogical content knowledge knowlegde that enables a particular content to be taught (analogies, illustrations, examples, anecdotes, explantions, demonstrations, common misconceptions, ...) learning to teach requires not only understanding the facts, but also developing a wide repertoire of pedagogical content knowledge, so that teachers can help students understand the subject; curricular knowledge individual materials and the ideas they contain; - Craft Knowlegde ("the wisdom oaf practice") knowledge, that teachers acquire within their own classroom practice; Berliner (1980) model of development of craft knowledgenovice stage advanced beginners stage competence profinciency expert - Personal Practical Knowledge way of understanding of and approaches to their work are strongly shaped by the personalities of the teachers themselves, their past experiences and how they view teaching; - Case Knowledge knowledge base of significant incidies, events, people that enables new situations to be identified and helps guide teachers' practice; - Theoretical Knowledge concepts and theories for thinking about their day-to-day practice; difficulities of transferring theoretical knowledge into practial action; - Metaphors and Imgages professional knowledge is largely propositional and capable of being articulated; some teachers' knowledge may be better represented in terms of metaphors and images; "Wubbles suggests that the metaphors, models, and analogies that teachers use to think about teaching can have far-reaching effects on how their practice develops." Teachers' Beliefs - Beliefs about Learners and Learning influence on how they approach teaching tasks and how they interact with their students; Konzepte über das Lernen von Schülern (aktive Beteiligung, emotionale Beteiligung, ...) teachers with different beliefs about children's learning tended to provide different types of classroom acitvity and supported different patterns of classroom interaction (Anning 1988); - Beliefs about Teaching "Some may view teaching as a process of knowlegde transmission, others as a process of guiding children's learning." - Beliefs about Subject four different orientations to science teaching and learning (Smith and Nale 1989):discovery, process, didactic/content mastery and conceptual change; - Beliefs about Learning to Teach - Beliefs about Self and Teaching Role Relationship of Beliefs to Classroom Practice einige Studien haben Widersprüche zwischen beliefs und beobachtetem Verhalten ergeben (Galton, Simon & Croll 1980), einige Studien haben Verbindungen zwischen beliefs und dem Handeln im Unterricht identifiziert (Short & Short 1989) und einige Fallstudien berichten über Übereinstimmungen zwischen beliefs und der Art und Weise der Planung und Durchführung von Unterricht (Cornett et al. 1990; Wilson & Wineburg 1991); es ist schwierig das implizite belief system explizit zu machen und dadurch eine Sprache zu entwickeln, um über die eigene Praxis zu sprechen professional growth) (Freeman 1991)

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  • J Calderhead

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