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Journal article

Temperature-dependent accumulation mode particle and cloud nuclei concentrations from biogenic sources during WACS 2010

Ahlm L, Shakya K, Russell L, Schroder J, Wong J, Sjostedt S, Hayden K, Liggio J, Wentzell J, Wiebe H, Mihele C, Leaitch W, MacDonald A ...see all

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, issue 6 (2013) pp. 3393-3407 Published by European Geosciences Union

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Abstract

Submicron aerosol particles collected simultane- ously at the mountain peak (2182 m a.s.l.) and at a forested mid-mountain site (1300 m a.s.l.) on Whistler Mountain, British Columbia, Canada, during June and July 2010 were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for quantification of organic functional groups. Positive ma- trix factorization (PMF) was applied to the FTIR spectra. Three PMF factors associated with (1) combustion, (2) bio- genics, and (3) vegetative detritus were identified at both sites. The biogenic factor was correlated with both temper- ature and several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The combustion factor dominated the submicron particle mass during the beginning of the campaign, when the tempera- ture was lower and advection was from the Vancouver area, but as the temperature started to rise in early July, the bio- genic factor came to dominate as a result of increased emis- sions of biogenic VOCs, and thereby increased formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). On average, the biogenic factor represented 69 % and 49 % of the submicron organic particle mass at Whistler Peak and at the mid-mountain site, respectively. The lower fraction at the mid-mountain site was a result of more vegetative detritus there, and also higher in- fluence from local combustion sources. The biogenic factor was strongly correlated ( r ∼ 0 . 9) to number concentration of particles with diameter ( D p )> 100 nm, whereas the combustion factor was better corre- lated to number concentration of particles with D p < 100 nm ( r ∼ 0 . 4). The number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was correlated ( r ∼ 0 . 7) to the biogenic fac- tor for supersaturations ( S ) of 0.2 % or higher, which indi- cates that particle condensational growth from biogenic va- pors was an important factor in controlling the CCN concen- tration for clouds where S ≥ 0 . 2 %. Both the number concen- tration of particles with D p > 100 nm and numbers of CCN for S ≥ 0 . 2 % were correlated to temperature. Considering the biogenic influence, these results indicate that temperature was a primary factor controlling these CCN concentrations at 0.2 % supersaturation.

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