Testosterone - Mediated Functions DATASET Impact : 1 . 93 CITATIONS 119 DOWNLOADS 102 VIEWS 55 2 : Michael Indiana 58 SEE Richard Yale 41 SEE Available : Michael Retrieved : 18 Feature Article ABSTRACT Recent advances in human life history theory have provided new insights into the potential selection pressures that were instrumental in the evolution of human and non - human primate males . However , gaps remain in our understanding of how primate males regulate and allocate energetic resources between survivorship and reproductive effort . Defense against parasitic infection is an important force shaping life history evolution . Proper performance of immunological responses against infection is influenced by many physiological systems , including metabolic , reproductive , and stress hormones . Because androgens influence and modulate immune , reproduc - tive , and somatic metabolic functions , assessing changes in testosterone and immune factors during infection may yield insight into male physiological ecology . In this review , we examine male life history trade - offs between immune and reproductive endocrine functions as well as provide a comprehensive review of testosterone – immunocompetence relationships . Emphasis is placed on testosterone because it is a primary hormone shown to be crucial to energy - allocation processes in vertebrates . Non - primate species have been used more extensively in this research than humans or non - human primates , and therefore this extensive literature is organized and reviewed in order to better understand potential parallel relationships in primates , especially humans . Furthermore , we attempt to reconcile the many inconsistent results obtained from field studies on immune – endo - crine interactions as well as detail various methodologies that may be used to forward this research in evolutionary anthropology . Am .
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