TiN, VN and CrN were systematically deposited on silicon substrates using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique at temperatures and ion (N 2 +) energy ranging from 300 °C to 500 °C and 100 eV to 650 eV, respectively. The results showed that the texture could be controlled by the ion beam energy, flux, and its incident angle, in conjunction with the deposition temperature. For the 0° angle of ion incidence, fiber textures were formed and could be controlled between (111) and (200) surface plane orientation by adjusting ion flux or ion energy. Three types of in-plane textures were produced, when the ion beam was incident at 45° angle, for which cases ion channeling played an important role in the formation of in-plane texture. Using the strain-energy perturbation method, the stability of texture can be further understood. Among the three in-plane textures, the (200) in-plane texture is strain-energy stable, and the others are not. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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