Theory of confocal fluorescence imaging in the programmable array microscope (PAM)

  • Verveer P
  • Hanley Q
  • Verbeek P
 et al. 
  • 78

    Readers

    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 73

    Citations

    Citations of this article.

Abstract

The programmable array microscope (PAM) uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to generate an arbitrary pattern of conjugate illumination and detection elements. The SLM dissects the fluorescent light imaged by the objective into a focal conjugate image, Ic, formed by the ‘in-focus’ light, and a nonconjugate image, Inc, formed by the ‘out-of-focus’ light.We discuss two different schemes for confocal imaging using the PAM. In the first, a grid of points is shifted to scan the complete image. The second, faster approach, uses a short tiled pseudorandom sequence of two-dimensional patterns. In the first case, Ic is analogous to a confocal image and Inc to a conventional image minus Ic. In the second case Ic and Inc are the sum and the difference, respectively, of a conventional and a confocal image. The pseudorandom sequence approach requires post-processing to retrieve the confocal part, but generates significantly higher signal levels for an equivalent integration time.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Confocal microscope
  • Digital micromirror device (DMD)
  • Optical sectioning
  • Point-spread- function
  • Pseudorandom sequences
  • Spatial light modulator
  • Tandem scanning microscopy

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Get full text

Authors

  • P. J. Verveer

  • Q. S. Hanley

  • P. W. Verbeek

  • L. J. Van Vliet

  • T. M. Jovin

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free