The manifestations of cardiovascular diseases differ between men and women, as do outcomes after therapeutic interventions. It is important that those involved in drug discovery and development, as well as disease treatment, are aware of these differences because such variations are likely to have an increasing role in therapeutic decisions in the future. Here, I review gender differences in the most frequent cardiovascular diseases and their underlying sex-dependent molecular pathophysiology, and discuss gender-specific effects of current cardiovascular drugs and the implications for novel strategies for drug development.
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