The identification of the antigen recognition receptors for innate immunity, most notably the Toll-like receptors, has sparked great interest in therapeutic manipulation of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptor agonists are being developed for the treatment of cancer, allergies and viral infections, and as adjuvants for potent new vaccines to prevent or treat cancer and infectious diseases. As recognition grows of the role of inappropriate Toll-like receptor stimulation in inflammation and autoimmunity, significant efforts have begun to develop antagonists to Toll-like receptors as well.
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