Thermal conversion of Cynara cardunculus l. and mixtures with Eucalyptus globulus by fluidized-bed combustion and gasification

  • Abelha P
  • Franco C
  • Pinto F
 et al. 
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The behavior of Cynara cardunculus L. was studied during fluidized-bed (FB) combustion and gasification. The Cynara had a low moisture content and considerable lower heating value (LHV). Cynara presented significant quantities of S, Cl, and ash, which contained high levels of Na, K, P, Ca, and Si. The fuel N conversion to NOx was high because of the large release of NH 3 and HCN during pyrolysis. The conversion of the fuel S to SO 2 was low because of S retention mainly as alkali sulfates. HCl emissions were higher than the usual legal limits imposed in European Union (EU) countries, although retentions of 40-55% fuel Cl could be estimated. The co-combustion of Cynara with eucalyptus was tested with benefits regarding process conditions, pollutant emissions, and ash behavior, but still, the HCl concentration surpassed the legal limit. The tendency for bed agglomeration was also observed during the gasification of cardoon. Two strategies were carried out to minimize this adverse effect: (1) co-gasification of cardoon with eucalyptus and (2) addition of natural minerals to the gasification bed. The results of the first strategy caused a decrease in H2 levels, while tar, hydrocarbon, and CO amounts were found to increase. On the other hand, the addition of natural minerals did not lead to any significant change in the major gas components, although some tar and hydrocarbon abatements were observed, with olivine being the most effective. Dolomite and ZnO gave rise to a greater reduction in HCl and sulfur compounds in the gas phase, respectively. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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  • Pedro Abelha

  • Carlos Franco

  • Filomena Pinto

  • Helena Lopes

  • Ibrahim Gulyurtlu

  • Jorge Gominho

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