Thought, language, and communication in schizophrenia: Diagnosis and prognosis.

  • Andreasen N
  • Grove W
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Studied thought disorder in 94 normal Ss and 200 psychiatric patients (25 each had manic disorder; schizoaffective disorder; schizophrenic disorder (SZD), disorganized type; and SZD, paranoid type), using the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) of N. C. Andreasen (1978). Psychiatric patients were evaluated at 6 mo. Some TLC abnormalities were found in speech of normals, namely derailment and loss of goal. Manic speech was fluent and disorganized. Schizoaffectives had less severe but similar abnormalities. Hebephrenic speech was empty and very disorganized. Paranoid Ss had a similar pattern but with less poverty of content and incoherence. Over 6 mo, manic Ss and schizoaffectives tended to improve and schizophrenics tended not to improve. Results suggest that the global concept "thought disorder" should not be considered pathognomic of schizophrenia.

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  • Nancy C. Andreasen

  • William M. Grove

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