The scalar three-dimensional optical transfer function is derived without using the paraxial approximation. The weak-object transfer function for a partially coherent system with equal condenser and objective apertures and the coherent transfer function for a confocal transmission system are of identical form. The coherent transfer function of a confocal reflection system is also derived. Both uniform angular illumination and systems obeying the sine condition are considered. In all cases the transfer functions can be expressed analytically.
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