Threshold distances and depths of nucleopolyhedrovirus in soil for transport to cotton plants by wind and rain

  • Fuxa J
  • Richter A
  • Milks M
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Two aspects of abiotic transport of nucleopolyhedrovirus from soil to cotton plants were examined in greenhouse experiments: the distance from the plants and depth in soil from which the virus could be transported under controlled conditions of soil type and moisture, wind, and precipitation. Transport distance and depth were tested separately under relatively conducive (precipitation/sandy soil and wind/clay soil) and non-conducive (precipitation/clay soil and wind/sandy soil) conditions, as determined in previous research. The amount of virus transported by precipitation generally decreased as distance from the plant increased, but in wind the amounts of virus transported were best described by polynomial models, with transport efficiency usually peaking at a distance of 60 cm. Depending on plant height and tissue, the farthest distances that virus was transported ranged from 30 to 60 cm by precipitation from clay soil, 60-75 cm in precipitation/sand, 60-80 cm in wind/clay, and 60-80 cm in wind/sand. In the depth experiments, transport by precipitation and wind generally decreased as the depth of virus in soil increased. The greatest depth from which NPV was transported ranged from 0 to 0.5 cm by precipitation from clay soil, 0.5-1.0 cm in precipitation/sand, 1.0-2.0 cm in wind/clay, and 0.5-1.0 cm in wind/sand. All of the experimental parameters (distance or depth, soil type, plant height, plant tissue) and all two-way interactions significantly (P < 0.05) affected transport in all four experiments, except for the "soil × plant tissue" interaction in the depth/wind experiment. In all of the experiments, transport was significantly greater (P < 0.05) to lower than to upper portions of plants and to leaves than to buds and squares. Transport was significantly greater from sandy soil than from clay in precipitation, and it was greater from clay than from sandy soil in wind. The results will contribute to NPV epizootiology, microbial control, and risk assessment. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Baculoviridae
  • Heliothis virescens
  • Nucleopolyhedrovirus, epizootiology
  • Nucleopolyhedrovirus, transport
  • Transport, rain
  • Transport, soil-plant
  • Transport, wind

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  • James R. Fuxa

  • Arthur R. Richter

  • Maynard L. Milks

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