We studied active flexion from 90 degrees to 133 degrees and passive flexion to 162 degrees using MRI in 20 unloaded knees in Japanese subjects. Flexion over this arc is accompanied by backward movement of the medial femoral condyle of 4.0 mm and by backward movement laterally of 15 mm, i.e., by internal rotation of the tibia. At 162 degrees the lateral femoral condyle lies posterior to the tibia.
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