Efficacy of chemotherapy may be maximized and its toxicity can be minimized if drugs would be administered at specified daily times. The present study was aimed to examine if the protection of amifostine against cisplatin toxicity is time dependent. Amifostine is an organic thiophosphate that protects selectively normal tissues, but not tumors, against the cytotoxicity of DNA binding chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. ICR male mice which were entrained to Light:Dark (L:D) 14:10 were injected (intrapritoneal bolus) for 5 consecutive days with either: cisplatin, cisplatin plus amifostine (administered 30 minutes prior to cisplatin). Injections were given at either 08:00, 13:00, 20:00 or 01:00. Five days later, on day 10, each set of mice was sacrificed (at the same hour corresponds to the injection hour), blood count, blood creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were assayed. Cisplatin treated mice exhibited nephrotoxicity, as indicated by increased blood urea nitrogen values and by high blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratios, as well as myelotoxicity that was indicated by low levels of hemoglobin and platelets. Co-administration of amifostine-cisplatin reversed both, the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, and its myelosuppressive effects. For BUN, hemoglobin and platelets, maximal protections were observed at 08:00, (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01 respectively). For BUN/Cr ratio (p < 0.05), maximal protections was observed at 13:00. These findings show that amifostine exhibits time dependent protection against cisplatin toxicity and thus it is recommended to use the protector when treatments are given during morning hours. The results also further validate the notion that chronochemotherapy is advantageous at least in reducing drug toxicity and thus should be integrated in the design of clinical protocols. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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