Theoretical and empirical work on time as a niche difference has been hindered by a narrow application of competition theory. While previous work has emphasized exploitation competition, we suggest that interference competition is much more likely to result in temporal partitioning. An advantage of this approach is that time becomes a truly independent niche axis: whereas exploitation competition pressumes partitioning of other niche axes (particularly food and habitat), interference competition allows time to become a dimension over which organisms may reduce the effects of agonistic interactions.
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